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SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY BULLETIN 137

THE INDIANS OF THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

By - JOHN R. SWANTON

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY BULLETIN 137

THE INDIANS OF THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

By JOHN R. SWANTON

UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON : 1946

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. Price $2.75

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

SMITHSONIAN INsTITUTION, Bureau or AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY, Washington, D. C., May 1, 1942. S1r: I have the honor to transmit herewith a manuscript entitled “The Indians of the Southeastern United States,” by John R. Swan- ton, and to recommend that it be published as a bulletin of the Bureau of American Ethnology. Very respectfully yours, M. W. Stiruine, Chief. Dr. C. G. Axzort, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution,

II

CONTENTS

oS i ote DE Cie uie Glpneast. bee ok see epee ocd @mieeiecation of the Southeastern tribes. ._........-....----.-.----_-. aie ii a ahi A ee Relation of the aboriginal population to the natural areas__._.....__._-_-- ITO TES os oe a ee ee eee ecues ome eek History of the Southeastern Indians from the period of first white contact

forthe expedition of Hernando de Soto_._..-....-.-..-..--.....-..- Geeeeeeaition of Hernando de Soto.........---.-..--222L- 222 2cL ll ECOL DOMod. _.-... 2s ee 82 Sketches of the Southeastern tribes and their population____.____________

ica ep ae ee eR ARIE SON * SE A ee a SP m_magdarko,,or; more correctly, Nadako.ooie22- 2-2. -b. ie J kk eee 2 ee eee se pete AS TOE re od) LEO PC deg Le 7

Pas oe Bay i) ee a tee A a a ee il UR Bh et 2 RE Yee TE OES RE Oa ee NS PGA eR 2 IT i oe age Th SE AA SS gy Pee i CEO Rata th Cd CE RE ee

DIRE eA aS ele Ua ia ee i nee ter 8 ol EE ete 7 OE eM UW EE aR CO NGn Aa PRADA ie LOR er RR Bie 1 Per

IV CONTENTS

Sketches of the Southeastern tribes and their population—Continued.

Eyeish or Ha-ish 2.2.5 ee eee Fresh Water (“Agua Dulce’’) Indiansiu 02). vost Wus-heiehee sooo 2 So aenc e Grigra, or, more often, Gris... 2 GunGate ee hak ee

Kaskinamno. oo) oi ee ra ae ee Kealedtiu. ce eek a ee a et bce hk - Sa eR NE SMMC DeE ST CUADARNG OR rReae CEE WKeeasa tin 28 se et ee a ha

Macapiras. or Amaeapiras...- 02) a Le ee Machapurme.. ee Managhose. io. oo eee Meher in. ie ed a ea ee els cd Michigames.. 2. -).\.o- bo ELC 5 en error eS AINE

Wirth coh es <p eats ie, dt oe Moratek 0 bo nS ak le Mugulasha (see Quinipissa).

ee a a a a

137

CONTENTS Vv

Sketches of the Southeastern tribes and their population—Continued. PAGE SS TES 0 ES Jaks 2 2 2) oD i tee agape Ll 155 b> Nacanish..- ---_- SEE AOR, Sy 4 SAN By La apes aa ot a Reaen DUanaE 155 OE Said EES Sanaa te) SoS a REAL) OTe ye 156 EUSTON OY SECA Esau oe DS 9, eet ee aa a ad ere a) RR 156 TESS IRS ONE ie na |, ES AP eee fay hon) eee ROO 157 0 EINE 2a pe eg) | Epa POR PRE a ee 157 eee EES LT 16 eagle ae ano 1) es ea eg cee PE SPF SLR. 157 IIS EE RT GL) aR a ao v5 REE 158 EEE ORS ST SS Rg es: 2 a ea Paige yO 158 Ee RI a 6 CE tak 2) ACTA aR a ag alts Fee 158 I RR Re 2 Oe 3 ee a ta 161 ST PE, «<5 AI ek a SA DY 162 Ee Sas a aS RIE Rc ean ea de 162 RE ICT OTIS ele Piss SS SUR Decree pm aC Rt Oa 162 Nottoway (Notowega, Nittaweega, or Nautaugue)_-__-_-_-_------ 163 EI i SS Ss SE eae ea Pe 164 EPIRA Oc he 5 UW eo ES se ea ss 164 NT nd Ae aT cag a 2 or TEES ae ee Oe 165 Urea rave retire evan tt 2) LL a ies Ph pe a a 165 Peenediiay Or Mosopeles. eo ft es a ee 165 SERIE OSE) SRO ee er) A Me Ramen Ee ok PR ha 166 eS a VTS RS Sane yl 0d 9 RE Sa Ce EN RR ore 167 EE OE ST RR) 9 ene ae CR RE 168 SEE SESS IS 059 2 EE a eR Pe 168 eS LRT Pansies pe ts se, Sat ea PO 168 UI eee Scary 2d ee mt Rt Aedes 2 es 169 NE Ie EI EIT 12 CVO a AP Co 170 ERTIES RIED MIR arog Se 0 CINE SO ge RT 170 OES Tea api Sy Se 5,2 sage 170 I Dibra emery ONS). ON ee Se 171 IEDR Tae hereg ies es re ik ee era 172 TNs EISRESGE UESSRITO ae paftP tyes 728 NS Nee eae gE aL ee oe 172 EEL ek Ieee On 0 © os ne ee EE 172 DS) EES aya PSI Oe oe te eg ere RN ee, 173 etre Pao or Posoye..... 2. ob ee ee 173 LE ES POE a Makes tak cS NCR EER EOS NERY SUMS ia 173 EE EES DO Seog Deeg Cd ene ae Sl Pe, eae PO 175 I SR TSG DE ERS sai ak eee Loy LO SE ee, Pag REND oy Oe Os Mie 176 RTE IeE oe cg ey deat eee ke ae Oe) ae Pernod Nay hf 5 2) ie ha ee Nt nr le ed 177 SLED SEER 0 SWE Sain ep be ac ge DL AW ea 177 IRE Sear emer VA LS ek ee eo fee Rey ea 178 CemRMmDaITS. A Mie eae atie Lh a 2 oe hs lee ee 179 NMI Ee Lesh oer Ch Le SUG a eee We, oN ile ae 179 muanEEER ANE he ta DONE aS ihe ree yIE OM oat a) ea Sy ee alee 181 0 Te ieee Sy Bon oie We ye odie NET Oman AMROEE be fect oe? De ae 182 Sener aren Leer. y)) Piero Miah Re ss 183 CO a Th RUSE DUES SPE So 00 0 eg COD Ey) te Se RS es) Dy 184 Ne I BN SRE COE FEATS Nec DSI, | Ro Cy 186 TE SE SSeS We Oa 186 ee DEE ONIONS Doce Uy ee ga cy 2 a 186

perce. Hormugiue. Or Surreches.. 2.2. 22-2 ol eke 187

VI CONTENTS

Sketches of the Southeastern tribes and their population—Continued. PAGE Eaeetaeune 3.522 fo ht oe, 187 Taensen-2 2. oi. oe ee oe ea eee 188 Tame: (Pamat)o 2 ees ee eee 189 Tangmmahons: 300) ofa es os Se eee oe 190 Tepe oe eae. eS ee oe 190 TAWERSB = oe oc ee oo eS Oe ee 190 Tekeste or Peqnesuac) 420. 3 oe eee ee te ae TUMOUR: STOUPS Besos notre A ss nie eee er oe 193 oly Cs | (eee EP Aes AY aie cen ta RM oh Se ADs 7 my a, = ony age yeychste 194 POCO 2 ee Rt a re 195 Tohome@. es foe ate ee oo a a in 196 Tukabahehoo:: 2c 82 Soho on ee eee 197 "Dearne Heelan aw ehh Sig hig bn oe oo aA tO 197 "TUSGRTORAL Eisai heh non > hg eo ae i ee 199 Tuskegeesc 2 OPA te ee. ee 200 ‘Peitelee sii Sn toh earl dfs oe fw) oo eg eee > 200 Uting-or ‘Timueue ose: es. oo cs oe eee eee 201 Watcammaw eons oo eo occ ee eee 203 Wako kates) ne te ere oP oo ee oe ee 203 Washa (French? Quacha).u =. 2-22 2-2. 2 eee 204 Washttn or Ouechita:-soss2. ..- 2. cee as eee 204 Wateree p35 ive Heer oo ol 2 fe ee Rone Bil ea 205 Waiaw 2 so S 2 Sit ns 2 on oe eee ee So 206 Weanemeeess coe c4oheee ccc 235 ee eee 206 Wines ie ron ae oo oo. 2 ee eS Cee 206 WY eval ey ata ho oe > 2 a rie ae 207 Woeeen nec s sees ooe os oo ce ee eee 207 Wadkins ssc Poets ec ee ine 208 Weevil) en ers ed ten es > 8 Is at pM ne Ue ty 208 Wabash prc et oo on el oI 6 8 ie 211 VWar0@# oso oor tite oe ee ee eee 211 Yeopim (see Weapemeoc).

Yueh ooo ro dee oo oa eek? fae ene 212 VYurheorgeiss ss 02 seo aete coc ccc ctl sche eee 215 Yui-(Spanish: Ubi): 4202000 ee co fo ee eee 215 Yustaesor Hostaqu@s. 12-222 oer ee ee eee 216

Interpretations-of tribal names_ os. 22 52> 2e eee ee ee eee 216

Physical-and mental eharacteristies...2 2.2220) oes sou eee 219

The influence of language: #222 2/222. cece dose ee eee 238

Raw materials utilized by the Southeastern Indians____________-_-_-_-- 242 Mineral kingdom: oo6 seo ccce 2 foc rose Se ease eet se ee 242 Vegetable kingdom... 2s o 2 foccsecce ses cee ee eee 244 Animal ‘kingdomeccss ccc -2ccuccc cose ee ae ee 249 The distribution: of raw materials... 222 2. -2e2cd2c220 228552 eee 253

The annual econontie cycle. 222 2 2c240 poe eos eee te eee 255

P60 2 csc snc sh tebe be he ol fe ote ob Re ee 265 Discussions: Jeeec cel scecccicccc cet he eee 296

Horticulture so. 22 oocceec secede sec. lectern eee: SSS eee 304

Hunting-sci2cs2s2secscecce0 bend eel cools eee 310 Wooderaft::2ic2c.c.ceccccccicivecccr nT eee eee 310 Deer -hunting. 2 cece scccc cece bless ee eee eee 312

Bese hunting... .2-2 222222 ecceeec Se ES eee 321

CONTENTS VII

Hunting—Continued. PAGE Sartre MeN RNR se ae Se eo oi ee os et ree erties 324 BP eT GO EOS ARNERIG ks oh nmin in nh aaa alt 328 EES EEE TEE SPAN NSE og a a OIE a Oe 332 IERIE Oh TANTINGIS 5 eg eh et ee he regs 344 een oN AT CIOMeNLICAGION. ©. 35 ee 344 a I as ert SL es 346 Poe oamestic fowl, and cattle. .-2 =... 2. oe ecb es 351 MEIN SL PP CTAING TO0GS oo ee 351 a OE SIE ER EE pn 20S eR PU Ee 368 ETE SES 5, aE ERR i 2 1 I a en Se 372 SA NS es oe ea eect ys NOY ENE SL ees Se ee eT 381 IE tp, St ae i at i he in 386 EE ae eee) cE ne ae en ee ere ae 386 EET PCL STONING Sf ee ee 421 RM ee ce ad ok hie ho 422 IIIS olen soe S 21. ee a ee a oly ea 422 DPEMES ERIE WINGQOWA. 4 Se la ed 427 II ey 0 ho ee ee ed ie kk 428 Emr NGS, BNC TAS. 2k oh ee 430 a VE ag ON AREA) 0 oT Pe a a aD TT 432 EE ES SAE TROIS 0 Sos SU en Se ED ne cm 432 IER te fee eae eet AN i pee te OY edie he ge pale 433 Ie oes a SR ga es es 439 Lgl IE TI Te ie Ue opm OSS, 0 IL ea 439 ag aR ae SRA goes. PP eS - 442 emereade. nnd toxtges: 2000 es oo ee 448 EES ES aR Lee, 2 OT ee) oe SRR Ee ONY 454 ES SS tel = he, oe ee 456 nN fara ot eh te Sy ip oe a ote 469 I rege ee ee ee 475 ee ete Meme MEN. 477 ESE SS CINE AIRE acon ns 5 a a ER ae 479 CCE E5100 omen A ec a PT 481 CIPIIEIE Sele (Foo) tolls ee ee i ee a 481 reat faite get Gets 0 OS ee A es sk Ce hy 488 enamel wuear ier gfe he ee 489 EE CETUE [Soee SIA ae Meee iy Su ea aa ee REE >, NUE DT 490 mummnnen resne the hait.. 2.2 62 eo ee le oe 498 ST TG SOS USES cay ee eg ne ce Ce eT eS 508 REE EE EE sige Oly Oe ade el) Se oe ee I Pa od) ee 510 eee SIT EAI Ue = A oh Si ee ee 2 i te da 514 BUTS NS PUR: Oe) Ele erga ES 9 en Pa me SEI RE OPE REAM ROE fen ae 515 RE Re Ser te eee Oa a geen 516 0 TESS ST |: A ED Ss eC eS me 521 0 EELS CR OS SEU ee OE ae OI RPM ee Fr 522 Sa NAO) NS pe pe as VPI BE RS Ae 523 Ornamentation of belts and other articles of clothing-_____________-_ 523 Greasing and coloring of the hair and skin_______________________- 526 Body paint... ..._- De A SOREN 2 5 1a Ce ioe a eee eee ne ee ce 528 ET eet SE SA as 2 TI Id ec ht EN ND 532 PIETER Pre een et ee Be 536

Treatment of fingernails and toenails___-_-_-_.....--....-~--------~- 536

VIII CONTENTS

Ornamentation—Continued. PAGE Head- deformation 2:02 222 A ae oe eee oY Gay Differences between ornaments worn by men and women__________- 541

‘Phe use of stones foc ee a eee eee 541 Sources: of the:raw materals.wus. 2. 22 eee eee 541 Flint Duplementao ess ees e. . - ee ee eee 543 ARCS Boo swore sis seb: oo el es 544 Stone pipes.) 2s eee eee ee 545 Chunkey: -stoness2tsoh as etc ee See ee ee 547 Miscellaneous uses Of atone esc corer eee eee 548

Potterys os fee ee cs Tee ee ee 549

Miscellaneous householdutensiis<: =. =. . -2s 2822222 eee 555 Wooden stoeleins2 tele c ceee e eeeeee 555 Dishes and spoons of -wood-and-horn: 2 <s2222242 526s. 2 See eee 556 Wooden mortars: Ys 2332 2esosi oo ee 2 eee 558 Wooden: chesteizcsc hs ses 4kveo sos che ee eee 560 Cradles: 2 obo oe 4a Sele eo eee Se Eee 562 Combs o:522seee5essodoe csc. eee SSE eee 564 Seratchersal: ses ss esse cess coe a eee 564

Implements used in hunting, fishing, and war_-.._-._.___..-_-_---_------ 564 Mnivesis stoves Gewese nd Sos 3 Oe ee 564 huis Sig ie a aiienited no on Sea re he 566 Bows and/armowseeoceec cosh ccc co ee eee 571 ances) spears; and) javelins.._.. _. < .0/-44 ee ee es oe a eee 582 IO WetNSic es eet le) 2 oo et eee 585 Glin pails 5.5.0°38 8 em Coe ec 2 535 Se 587 Shields casein ses 5 ro ee A eee 587 Ari 25s oe ye ne oo > to eee al ie hg ie 588

Implements serving transportation. - . 2-5 Ss 23a 22 5 2 2 eee eee 589 Canoes and rafiscc2 232202254 12 3e See ee 589 Dither. oso v aks aotewetcce cer Se eee oA 598 Saddles) 2us02 56 /ibecbese te cclccecese ee eee eee 601 Bridges. ns 2224 sae ee seek oon os 2 SAN el ee 601

Mats and basketseoc2. twee so con Le SOR eee 602

The eolormeg.of manufactured articles. 22 222222223. l22622 soa 608

Mriemonie devices: s o822lc2cecccccroc so wi eee eee 610

Artistic: developments: S020 22.2 2s2c 22023 Aa eee See 613

Musical instrumenteio2 24 2.22.2-52.[2.c0n4 cee eee ae eee 624 Dias: ee ok he Be ats or ok: Se i 624 Rattles: sete Mee awry bh he Ae Ae ee 626 Fiageolete) pes2tae sc es2 ccs: coco rcs Se eee 628 Raspes wah reee eee ues fo sels ste pote Bees te) aot oe 629

Sodietal atid ceremonial life. 2) 2.2222 cn cele see ees eee 629 Towns. 22% UWRWeseovesescisdcccccoteccustadedebs Rae 629 Social-orgattivation. 2420) -50 ccc. sc beac ee eee ee eee 641

General features: 5! 000 222. cc cccceesekeeene ee ae 641 Clans ail periteds gooc.lccescccnsc oct ee eager ee 654 Oastes rhe see ee ee ee ren a ree 661 Moistiegs:s2cisccecssco CUA RES UR SE A ee ee 663 Terma-of relationship. 2: = 25-25 Ssc.Seseeseseoe cee 665 Namesnsa2oone 2 ceocdeccccabut cocci ee 671 Games s2 i ssc strdeosecccc obese cca cp ee ee 674

ILLUSTRATIONS Ix

Societal and ceremonial life—Continued. PAGE IRN UN ERTS AMIN ee yh a i rch SN Nate et 701 Customs relating to birth, education, and the division of labor be-

CPE ORS RR eaten eg 110 Te ne em fn Ye ONT OT AIS CS 709 INTEL Ps UR 2 ge EEA me oat NC a 718 OER TCENT CLI 2), ae aga PR? pS 730 PMN IreEEALTSTIMOALION 2. me es a Se 733 TSS EEE HET SPO OSS. nT eae ame ag Ry 736 emremmemeies, DELIOLS ATK MISR OOS a I i a on en a 742 MI URERCLIORS bien a) 2) em ee 782

cea RRS A il ce cp i 799 eum CUITUTAL GUarActlers. 65 kee 801 RTT CT TURD ce) a a 805 NURI CHUIRLR Cat S002, hr OE i a ee i ny 812 ETS EE RE ao” RLS A, Se a RD SSE 823 Comparison of the Southeast with corresponding areas in other parts

TS EE SDN EPR RE SF > 2 (Ream gaat ee em NRE hol ie 823

Se 2 ON sh ta inl am cl 827

cn 2, se ae Ne ee 832

tes a te Ae a A I oi es i OO a) oe

ILLUSTRATIONS MAPS

1. Location of Indian tribes in the Southeast about the year 1650__-__-_ 1 2. Distribution of Earthworks in the eastern United States (reproduced

from The Mound Builders, by Henry Clay Shetrone, fig. 8)_._____ 2 3. Distribution of Indian population in the Southeast with reference to

SEE GTS oe a aaa ogee a ayn an ai ea 4 4. Average July temperature in the Southeast._____________-_..__---- 6 5. Average January temperature in the Southeast___-____._____..___-- 6 6. Average annual rainfall in the Southeast (in inches)_____.__._____-- _romenk ireduencies in the Southeast... oo a. 8 8. Climatic regions of the world (reproduction of map by Prof. J.

owiehe gine alee Bei alata aha yn phe Sa et ade adiiaee lat bel tA ta yh 8 9. Biotic areas in the Southeast (from the Fourth Provisional Zone Map

of North America of the U. S. Biological Survey, by C. Hart Mer-

riam, Vernon Bailey, E. W. Nelson, and E. A. Preble, 1910)__-____ 9

10. Tribal movements according to traditions and earliest records_-___-__ 22

11. Locations of Indian tribes in the Southeast at different periods-_-_--_-_- 34

12. Route of Hernando de Soto and Luis de Moscoso through the South-

7 FUR Aries alone gS geremetliy ania hl ol rat alloted eh An’. Ngee eal let Se eb a cbf 40

13. Map to illustrate the distribution of certain natural resources in the

southeast drawn upon by the Indians_2 2-222 eee eel 254

PLATES (All plates at end of book)

1. Intertribal Indian Council called by John Ross at Tahlequah, Cherokee

Nation, in June 1843 (after Stanley).

2. 1, Charlie Thompson in 1910, later chief of the Alabama Indians, now de-

ceased. 2, Wife and children of Charlie Thompson.

3. Drawing by A. de Batz showing Indians of several nations— Illinois, Atakapa,

Foxes (after Bushnell).

ILLUSTRATIONS

. 1, Home of Armojean Reon, one of the last speakers of the Atakapa lan-

guage. 2, Home of the Catawba chief, Sam Blue.

. 1, A group of Catawba girls, 1918. 2, Ladies’ Relief Society of the Church

of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, Catawba Reservation.

. 1, Old Catawba House, 1918. 2, Old Catawba House, 1918. . House of Worship of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints on the

Catawba Reservation, S. C.

. Cherokee Indians sent to England in 1730 with Sir Alexander Cuming.

. Three Cherokee chiefs sent to England in 1762.

10. 1, Austenaco, the Great Warrior. (After a drawing by Sir Joshua Reyn-

11.

12.

olds, reproduced in the Royal Magazine.) 2, The Cherokee chief Cunne Shote, in 1762 (after Parsons).

1, Sequoya (after McKenney and Hall). 2, John Ross (after McKenney and Hall).

1, Major Ridge (after McKenney and Hall). 2, Tahchee (Cherokee pro- nunciation of his English name “Dutch”). (After McKenney and Hall.)

. 1, Tooan Tuh (Cherokee Distt, “Spring Frog’). (After McKenney and

Hall.) 2, A Chickasaw Warrior (after Romans).

. 1, George Wilson, a Chickasaw Indian. 2, Home of a Chickasaw Indian

named Mose Wolf, at Steedman, Okla.

. The last Chickasaw Council House, at Tishomingo, Okla. . Benjamin Paul, last chief of the Chitimacha Indians and one of the last

speakers of the Chitimacha language.

. Registe Dardin and wife, Chitimacha Indians, Charenton, La. . 1, The Sacred Hill of Nanih Waiya, in the old Choctaw Nation. 2, View

from the top of Nanih Waiya Hill, looking east.

. Choctaw Indians, from the sketch by De Batz (after Bushnell). . 1, Pushmataha, the great Choctaw chief (after McKenney and Hall). 2,

Mo-sho-la-tub-bee, another famous Choctaw chief (after Catlin).

. 1, Home of a Choctaw Indian named John Wesley, near Philadelphia, Miss.

2, John Wesley and family.

. 1, Thliotombi, an old Choctaw Indian living near Idabell, Okla., and his

family. 2, The Old Choctaw Council House at Tuskahoma, Okla.

. 1, Bob Verret and Baptiste Billiout, Houma Indians, Terrebonne Parish,

La., 1907. 2, Houma Indians on lower Bayou Lafourche, La., 1907.

. 1, Houma Indians on lower Bayou Lafourche, La., 1907. 2, Houma In-

dians on Little Barataria Bayou, La., 1907.

. 1, Old Houma Woman, Peint au Chien, La. 2, Old Houma House, at Point

au Chien, La., 1907.

. Stimafutchi, or “Good Humor” of the Coosades (Koasati) Creeks. (Sketch

by Trumbull in 1790.)

. 1, Jackson Langley, Koasati chief, living near Kinder, La. 2, Mother of

Jackson Langley, Kinder, La.

. Koasati Indian School near Kinder, La. . Tomo Chachi Mico (Tomochichi), or King of Yamacraw, and his nephew,

Tonahowi. (From painting by Verelst.)

. Tomochichi meeting Oglethorpe in England. . 1, A Creek War Chief (after Romans). 2, Mico Chlucco (Miko Thlakko),

the Long Warrior, or King of the Seminoles (after William Bartram).

. 1, Tuskatche Mico (properly Fus-hatchee Miko), or the Birdtail King of the

Cusitahs (Kasihta). (After a sketch by Trumbull, 1790.) 2, Hopothle Mico (Hop-hithli Miko), or the Talasee King of the Creeks. (After a sketch by Trumbull, 1790.)

33. 1, “John—a Creek” (after a sketch by Trumbull, 1790). 2, ‘Hysac, or the

Woman’s Man,” a Creek Indian. (After a sketch by Trumbull, 1790.)

ILLUSTRATIONS XI

34. 1, Ben Perryman, a prominent Creek Indian (after a painting by Catlin). 2, Opothleyoholo (Hopo-hithli Yoholo), the great War Speaker and leader of the Creek Indians (after McKenney and Hall).

35. 1, William McIntosh, chief of the Coweta Indians and the Lower Creeks (after McKenney and Hall). 2, William McIntosh, chief of the Coweta Indians and the Lower Creeks. (From a painting by Washington All- ston.)

36. 1, Timpoochee Barnard, Chief of the Yuchi Indians among the Lower Creeks (after McKenney and Hall). 2, Yoholomicco, a Creek Indian (after Mc- Kenney and Hall).

37. 1, Tustennuggee Emathla, or Jim Boy, a leader of the Thlapthlako Creek Indians (after McKenney and Hall). 2, Menawa, a Creek Indian (after McKenney and Hall).

3874. Old Creek Council House, Okmulgee, Okla., as it appeared in 1920.

37B. Last Creek Council House, Okmulgee, Okla., as it appeared in 1920.

38. 1, Creek Sam, a Natchez Indian, at his home near Braggs, Okla. 2, Watt Sam in 1908, principal Natchez informant of the writer and of Dr. Haas.

39. 1, Nancy Taylor, one of the last speakers of the Natchez tongue, 1908. 2, Square Ground in the Greenleaf Mountains, Okla., where Watt Sam offi- ciated as the Medicine Maker.

40. 1, Rosa Pierrette, last speaker of the Ofo Language, Marksville, La. 2, Ball Post and ground connected with the Square Ground shown on plate 39, figure 2.

41. The Booton portrait of Pocahontas.

42. The Timucua chief Saturiwa, drawn by Jacques Le Moyne (after Bush- nell).

43. 1, The Seminole Head Chief, Mikonopi (after McKenney and Hall). 2, Osceola (from painting by Catlin).

44. Osceola, from the painting in the Charleston Museum by Robert John Curtis.

45. 1, Osceola, from the painting by King (after McKenney and Hall). 2, The Seminole chief Tokos Imathla (“Tukoseemathla”) (after McKenney and Hall).

46. 1, The Seminole chief Heniha Imathla (“Ea-mat-la’’), or King Philip (after Catlin). 2, The Seminole Chief Aholochi (“Ye-how-lo-gee”’), or Cloud (after Catlin).

47. 1, The Seminole chief Holahta Miko (“Olactomicco”’), or Billy Bowlegs (after McKenney and Hall). 2, Tenskwatawa (‘“‘Ten-squat-a-way’’), the Shawnee Prophet (after Catlin).

48. Buffalo Tamer, Chief of the Tunica Indians in 1732, and the wife and child of the chief he succeeded, who was killed by the Natchez in June 1731. From the sketch by De Batz (after Bushnell).

49. 1, William Ely Johnson, Dr. A. S. Gatschet’s Tunica informant, taken at Marksville, La., about 1910. 2, Volecine Chiki, Chief of the Tunica In- dians in 1910.

50. Sam Young or Sesostrie Yauchicant, last speaker of the Tunica language.

51. Timucua Indians sowing their fields (after LeMoyne).

52. “Their Manner of Fishynge in Virginia” (after White).

53. Timucua Indians cooking (after Le Moyne).

54. 1, “Their Seetheynge of their Meate in Earthen Pottes” (after White). 2, “The Browyllinge of their Fishe over the Flame” (after White).

55. The Timucua Indians drying food (after Le Moyne).

56. Storehouse of the Timucua Indians (after Le Moyne).

57. A stockaded town of the Timucua Indians (after Le Moyne).

58. Creek House of the later pattern.

59.

ILLUSTRATIONS

1, Square Ground Cabin of the Alabama Indians (“Cabane du Conseil des Alibamons’’) in the eighteenth century, from a sketch in the French archives reproduced by Du Terrage. 2, Northern Seminole house (after MacCauley).

. Seminole house (after MacCauley). . Choctaw palmetto house (after Bushnell). . Acolapissa Temple and Cabin of the Chief, from a sketch by De Batz (after

Bushnell).

. The Natchez Temple (after Du Pratz).

. “A Weroan or Great Lorde of Virginia” (after White).

. “A Cheiff Ladye of Pomeiooc” (after White).

. “One of the Cheiff Ladyes of Secota” (after White).

. “A Young Gentill Woeman Doughter of Secota” (after White).

. “A Cheiff Lorde of Roanoac” (after White).

. 1, Natives in summer, Louisiana (after Du Pratz). 2, A woman and her

daughter, Louisiana (after Du Pratz).

. Natives in winter (after Du Pratz). 2, A Louisiana Indian in winter cos-

tume, from a sketch by De Batz (after Bushnell).

. 1, An Alabama woman dressing a skin, Polk County, Tex. 2, Alabama

gourd bottle, Polk County, Tex.

. 1, Alabama garter and hair ornament, Polk County, Tex. 2, Alabama mor-

tar and pestle, Polk County, Tex.

. 1, Hitchiti woman pounding corn, near Sylvian, Okla. 2, Caddo mortar

and pestle, near Anadarko, Okla.

. “The manner of makinge their boates” (after White). . Conveyance of the Great Sun of the Natchez (after Du Pratz). . 1, Chitimacha mat (now in Museum of the American Indian), from a photo-

graph taken at Charenton, La., in 1907. 2, Ball sticks and rattle used by Watt Sam, a Natchez Indian living near Braggs, Okla.

. “The Towne of Pomeiooc” (after White). . “The Towne of Secota” (after White). . The village of Sam Jones, or Arpeika, a Hitchiti Seminole chief in Florida

(after Eastman).

. A Choctaw ball player (after Catlin). . Timucua games (after Le Moyne). . Ceremony performed by the Timucua chief Saturiwa before going to war

(after Le Moyne).

. Plan of a fort and a prisoner in the frame prepared for execution (after

Du Pratz).

. Procession of the Peace Calumet (after Du Pratz).

. Bringing a wife to a Timucua chief (after Le Moyne).

. “The Tombe of their Werowans or Cheiff Lordes” (after White).

. Burial of a Timucua chief (after Le Moyne).

. Creek graves in Oklahoma.

. A Choctaw burial place (after Romans).

. Two pictographs (after Romans).

. “The Marckes of sundrye of the cheiff mene of Virginia” (after White). . “The idol Kiwasa,” in an Algonquian tribe of North Carolina (after White). . “Their Danses which they use att their Hyghe Feastes” (after White).

. “One of the Religeous men in the town of Secota” (after White).

. “The Coniuerer” (after White). fuse

. “Their manner of Prainge with Rattels abowt the Fyer” (after White). . Timucua sacrifice to the sun (after Le Moyne).

ILLUSTRATIONS xii

. Timucua Indians taking the black drink (after Le Moyne). . 1, 2, Two views of the Tukabahchee Square Ground in 1912. . 1, The Nuyaka Square Ground in 1912. 2, The Pakan Tallahassee Square

Ground in 1912.

. 1, Part of the Eufaula Square Ground in 1912. 2, Receptacle for the cere-

monial pots and other articles in the Eufaula Square Ground, 1912.

. 1, The Alabama Square Ground west of Hanna, Okla., in 1912. 2, Re-

ceptacle for the ceremonial pots and other articles in the Alabama Square Ground, 1912.

. 1, 2, Two views of the Square Ground of the Chiaha Seminole, Seminole

County, Okla., in 1912.

. 1, Leaders of the Chiaha Seminole Square Ground, Seminole County, Okla.,

in 1912. 2, The Mikasuki Square Ground, Seminole County, Okla., 1912. General Dance of the Natchez Indians (after Du Pratz).

. Treatment of the sick by Timucua Indians (after Le Moyne). 107.

1, Home of the “Knower” Yahola, near Muskogee, Okla., 1912. 2, Sweat Lodge frame at Chiaha Seminole Square Ground, Seminole County, Okla., 1912.

TEXT FIGURES

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5. Ground plan of Cherokee houses (after Bartram) —~---_________--_____- 404

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464735 O - 46 (Face p. 1)

THE INDIANS OF THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES By Joun R. Swanton

INTRODUCTION

Several years ago when I was collecting materials from early writ- ers regarding the Creek Indians and other Southeastern tribes, a quantity of notes accumulated bearing on the material culture of these people. These, augmented by a few of my own and sketches of the later history of the several tribes, I have brought together in the pres- ent work. Some material has also been included to augment earlier publications dealing with the social and ceremonial usages of the peoples in question. Although they are included in the same general area, it is not claimed that the discussion of certain of these tribes is complete, meaning particularly the Cherokee, Tuscarora, Quapaw, and Shawnee, which have been made the subject of considerable additional research and are still being studied. Indeed, no claim of a hundred- percent completion of any tribe can ever be made safely, since some manuscript may at any time be drawn from its place of concealment and modify materially everything that has been published, or even occasion a total revolution in our ideas regarding it. The present effort involves in the main a collection of source materials which it is hoped and believed will be of use to future students.

GEOGRAPHY OF THE SOUTHEAST

The Indians who are the subject of this bulletin lived between the 24th and 39th parallels of N. latitude and the 75th and 96th meridians of W. longitude on a territory now divided up among the Southern States of the American Union. It measured about a thou- sand miles from east to west and, including the Florida Peninsula, about the same from north to south, but omitting Florida, the north- south measurement would be little more than half as great.

Considered as an ethnological province, the Southeast includes primarily the territory now embraced in the States of Georgia, Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi, all of Louisiana except the ex- treme southwestern part, northeastern Texas, southern Arkansas, southern and western South Carolina, the westernmost mountain

J

THE LINGUISTIC STOCK TO WHICH EACH TR/BE BELONGS /S /NDICATED AS FOLLOWS <

MUSKHOGEAN NO UNDER- OR OVERLINING AND THE STOCK 1S MADE TO INCLUDE THE NATCHEZ AND TIMUCUA GROUPS OF LANGUAGES AND THE DOUBT- FUL LANGUAGES OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA

Semen CATAWBA IROQUOIAN CADDOAN......._- HASINAT ALGONQUIAN.__... POWHATAN TUNICAN

=— TUNICA , /NCLUDING THE TUNICA, CHITIMACHA AWD ATAKAPA

GROUPS

THE BROKEN LINES /NDICATE THE MORE CONTRACT- £D AND MORE EXPANDED BOUNDARIES OF THE SOUTHEASTERN CULTURAL PROVINCE

464735 © - 46 (Face p. 1) Mar 1—Location of Indian tribes in the Southeast about the year 1650. (Note: For Grigra, Tread Grigra.)

e*

2 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BuLt. 137

section of North Carolina, and nearly all of Tennessee. Early in the sixteenth century, it also extended over most of eastern Arkansas. As marginal districts should be added the remainder of North and South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, and some areas northward of the Ohio River itself. (See map 1.)

Considered as an archeological province, we shall have to extend not merely the marginal regions but the primary as well over most of the Ohio Valley and as far up the Mississippi as southern Wis- consin. The difference between the two indicates plainly a later shrinkage of culture-bearing tribes toward the south and in some measure toward the east and west. (See map 2.)

The geographical conditions are shown on map 3.

EXPLANATION OF MAP 3 (Facing p. 4) The physical areas are as given by Nevin M. Fenneman in cooperation with the Physiographic Committee of the Geological Survey, except for some changes in numbering. On Fenneman’s map the areas are described as follows:

1. Coastal Plain___-_-