FarmerSMagazine

JANUARY

1916

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THE MACLEAN PUBLISHING COMPANY. LIMITED, TORONTO, CANADA

CO-OPERATION— RUTHENIAN FARMERS—WAR AND THRIFT— ORCHARDS

FARMER'S MAGAZINE

Double Hip Braces Lock Each Separate Rafter

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At Last A Barn of Definite Strength

AT LAST— a barn that brings you unyielding ^ strength just at the points you need it most. Naturally, you look for strength in steel barn con- struction. There are other essentials of course. But just as you need four wheels to a cart, so you want de^nite strength at every point where strain is greatest.

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gJEEL Bl^^li

r'WAR'DLE pATENT'-l

are making history in the Canadian farming world. They have set aside, for all time, the day of heavy wood- en beams and posts. They have made unnecessary the loss of space from steel posts jutting far out from the walls, or projecting to the hips. They bring to the farmer of to-day the barn of tomonow. They bring him ALL the room ALL the strength ALL the protection and convenience the science of steel con- struction has evolved.

PEDLAR'S Steel Brace "Wardle Patent"

See for yourself the clear, open space and greater roominess in all parts of the Pedlar Bam, made possible by Pedlar's Steel Brace "Wardle Patent" not a new idea, but a brace that has proved its value throueh the lest of ten years' usage. Notice how it sets up close to every post, entirely out of the way.

Double Hip and Ridge Braces Lock Each Separate Rafter

Safety in steel construction rests on a posi- tive hold at the ridge and hip. So at these points in the Pedlar Barn you will find a double set of steel braces on each separate rafter. Think of it! Each Sep- arate Rafter. These powerlul braces, placed right at the points of strain, mean as much to you as a solid steel beam from wall to ridge^and without the excessive cost. No wonder the Pedlar Barn is stronger ! No wonder you can expect to find it as firm and rigid fifty years from now as it is to day!

Eeon Offered Before

An advantage found only in Pedlar's Steel Brace "Wardle Patent" Barn is the fact that you can operate your hayfork in the ridge or in either of the hips An exclusive

Tear Off and Mail

convenience that points still further to the scientific thoughtfulness called forth in Ped- lar construction.

Ir hcrited Security The same famous "Pedlar" coverings that have provided such protection to the wood- en frame barns in the past are now found in Pedlar's Steel Brace "Wardle Patent" Barn. "George" Shingles, in big, gener- ous size, 24 in. x 24 in. ; or if preferred, 26 gauge "Perfect" corrugated, galvanized iron roofing is supplied. Once the 28 gauge corrugated iron is placed on the wall frame, not one inch of wood appears from the outside. Pedlar's Steel Brace "Wardle Patent' Barn is absolutely LIGHTNING- PROOF, FIRE-PROOF, R A 1 N - PROOF, RUST-PROOF, and WIND- PROOF.

Surprise:. Await You Once you see Pedlar's Steel Brace "War- dle Patent" Barn, surprises await you at every turn. Roof and gable windows, metal framed and glazed with wired glass, reflect abundance of light to all parts of the barn. Pedlar's 'Superior ' Barn Ventila- tors supply ample ventilation and are proof against the nuisance of birds. Extra venti- lation when threshing is available through the windows, which are made to open and close. Eaveirough, conductor pipe and complete accessories properly drain all water from the roof. Eave and Gable cornices make an airtight covering at these vulner- able points.

Eventhtn^' CompIetiL'

Everything comes to you complete to the smallest detail ready for our expert work- men to set in and erect in a few short days. Wouldn't you like to know more about Pedlar's Steel Brace "Wardle Patent" Barn ? Wouldn't you like to see plans and blue prints of just the size of Pedlar Barn best suited to your own farm? We will gladly send you, without obligation what- ever, complete plans and working drawings without delay.

the C oupon NOW

The Pedlar People, Limited Oshawa, Ont.

Send me. without delay. Plans, Complete, of a Pedlar Steel Brace understood this will put me under no

F.M.

Working Drawings and Cosl "Wardle Patent" Bam. It is obligation to you whatever.

Size of Barn

Height of post

Name

Address

THE PEDLAR PEOPLE, Limited

(Established 1861) Executive Office and Factqries, Oshawa. Ont.

Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto, London. Winnipeg

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Steel Braces

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The FARMERS MAGAZINE

JOHN BAYNE MACLEAN, President JOSEPH McGOEV. B.A., Manager

JANUARY, 1916

E. M. CHAPMAN, B.A., Man. Editor ETHEL M. CHAPMAN, A.ssoc. Editor

FEBRUARY SPECIAL

A Short Talk from the Editors

In Fcbrttary, the readeis of The Farmer's Magazine will receive a Special Number: The new year is beginning under a war-cloud that has hung over the land for over a year and upon agriculture rests the big burden of feeding and maintain- ing a nation under arrns.

Every effort will have to be put forward by all of its to do our part well. It is true, prices do not always favor the faithful, but that too, is our business and the articles ap- pearing in this January number point the way to settle this.

In the February number this viewpoint has been kept prominent- ly before the editors who have deemed it wise to include in this number data about agriculture, that will be ready reference on any sub- ject for any farmer during the year. It will be mailed with a string through the corner, so that it can be hung up by the side of the far^n desk for ready reference.

The matter will be arranged un- der an ample index so that the reader will have no trouble in get- ting to the matter he requires at once. Moreover, there will be sev- eral expert articles on leading sub- jects of interest to farming. The illustrations and art ivork will be in keeping with the issue. Some of the page illustrations will make good framing. In fact the whole number will bristle with live infor- mation ahd entertaining anecdote.

This issue goes to all regular sub- scribers and to anyone, so the cir- culation manager informs us, who sends in his subscription before the first of the month, as he will not guarantee that the num.ber will last m.uch beyond that date, although a generous provision is being made.

The cover design is from, a paint- ing that received much favorable comment when on view in the art galleries of Toronto and Montreal. The scene is a winter one in the woods in the logging regions and is a masterpiece.

CONTENTS

AGRICULTURAL SPECIALS

Austrian Peoples in the West C. B. Sissons 8

Stories of the difficulties and successes of fnrcigii farmers in Canada.

The Greenhouse in Mid-winter Elmer Weaver 11

Plans to make now for the spring and sumniei.

Putting a Farm on its Feet Alonza Brown 12

Methods that won a gold medal farm. '

Making the Frills Pay K. J. Messenger 15

Restoring a Nova Scotia rundown farm and serving the community as well.

Does Dairying Pay Prof. H. H. Dean 19

How three farms In Oxford County bring $2',000 or over in profits a year.

Chicken or Avian Cholera J. K. Gerow, V.S. 21

The Efficient Farm House Genevieve 23

Winter in the Orchard ,». E.I. Farrington 24

A Fireplace That Draws Alex. MdcPherson 29

Cherry Trees as Fillers A. J. Campbell 30

Findings From Our Farm.; 32

An Onion Bonanza Iran B. Thompson 34

A Mixed F'armer of Grey T. H. Binnie 44

Rural Mail 70

January on the Fa7m . . Grasmere 73

News Notes 79

ECONOMIC AND EDUCATIONAL

The Iron is Hot: Three Articles by, The Editor, P.. P. Wood- bridge, and Sir Horace Plunkett 5

Do farmers make 6 per cent, on their investments? Do they get

good wages for their management? Co-operation the

need, the way, and the trail

A Prayer For The New Year Ethel M. Chapman 8

Pruning the Knotty Terms of Science F. F. Monro, M. A. 15

An Okanagan Consolidation Colin W. Lees 22

Seeing More of Canada /. W, Stark 36

The Consolidated School and Social Life R. M. Lees 40

War and Thrift W. C. Good 43

FOR YOUR ENTERTAINMENT

The Frost Girl (Serial) Robert E. Pinkerton 26

Answer to Our December Puzzle 69

WOMAN AND THE HOME

The Outcome of an Alpha Lodge Mrs. Walter Simpson 35

Women Who Start Things Lydia M. Parsons 41

The Homely Art of Making Pies Winnifred Marchand 46

A Smart and Practical Skating Outfit 47

Patterns for the Home Dressmaker 56

THE MACLEAN PUBLISHING COMPANY, LIMITED - - TORONTO GREAT BRITAIN Loudon, The MacLeau Company of Great Britain,

Limited, 88 Fleet Street, E.G. E. J. Dodd, Director. Telephone Central

12900. Cable Address: Atabek, London, Eng.

FARMER'S MAGAZINE

FOR BREADS. CAKES, PUDDINGS. PASTRIES, ETC.

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TO MAKE GRIDDLE CAKES andWAFFLES

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The FARMER'S

M AG AZ: I N E

Volume IX

TORONTO, JANUARY, 1916

Number 3

THE IRON IS HOT

Series of three articles on the Need, the Way and the Trail, that lead to a ri^ht solution of all farmers' business troubles.

THE NEED: f. m. chapman THE WAY: p. p. woodbridge THE TRAIL: sir Horace plunkett^

The Need

// the small farmer 'inust suffer because he cannot get a paying market for his pigs or wheat all must suffer. Farmers must forsake the devil-take-the-hindmost policy.

THE farmers of Canada, as of any country, are shock absorbers. They are the butt of barter. They pro- duce and take what the consumer gives. The price for his commodity is determined by the way that commodity is produced in the cheapest place. His sugar, his

clothes and often his own wheat

are paid for in prices that are set by a high standard of living in a protected industry.

The farmer is, as it were, then, a good-natured buffer. It is in- cumbent upon him to produce at a low price. He must never get rich. The world will not stand for it. The organized abstractive in- dustries will not stand for it. Con- sumers yell if they starve. The hue and cry is taken up and the farmer bends his back again. Per- haps he believes some of this noise as being vox dei.

Must this order prevail? Is the man who is tickling the soil into response, to remain dumb, his head, ostrich-like, buried in his own clay loam. Must he have no say in prices? .

Or is he too immoral to be fair in this arrangement with consum- ers? Should he be allowed to close down his mine when goods become too cheap, or shut up the factory, to create demand? Of course, the idea is preposterous! The people would starve.

Perhaps, you say, the farmer is con- tented! He is making money! He, alone, has the whip end now ! Why does he need anything more?

Let us see !

One of the best farmers of Ontario with 200 acres of good land, well equipped in every way, has a yearly cash return of some .$3,300.

This farm is worth, in the market to- day, about .$16,000. The running equip- ment, stock, machinery and feed runs up to $4,000. That is, he has $20,000 invested upon which, as working capital he must

*From an address Chicago recently.

John A. Maharg, of Saskatchewan, President of delivered at Canadian Council of Agriculture. An old Dufferin Co

boy, Ontario.

make dividends. Examining this we find: 'Interest at 8 per cent to cover de- preciation, etc., on $20,000 is $1,600. Salary for management and actual work of owner and family for one year should, in all fairness be put at $2 per day or $730.

Wages of his help for the year runs to $700.

Purchase of feeds, binder twine, oil, gasoline, etc., farm bills make $250. The taxes, church and charity take about $2.'i0.

This totals something like $3,530. Now he is able to save from his $3,300, only about $1,000 to $1,200 per year. It is clear that this $1,000 is all taken from the interest on his investment and his salary as man- ager,

It must be remembered that the $730 is all eaten up in the living he gets and in the grocer and dry goods bills.

And it is for that $1,000 that all the world is tumbling over, itself. Everybody is grabbing for it. Quite naturally so! For every- body's living eventually comes from its turnover.

REAL RURAL PROBLEM

How is the farmer to retain the big share of it and to increase his resources? Here are two questions about which present agricultural officials and pseudo economists, are vexing their bulletin services. First how is the farmer to hold the $1,000? That's what is the matter with agriculture now.

No, it is not the rural problem ! Doesn't that word smack peculiar- ly? The words rural problem have been coined by the city man when he finds his dining-room get- ting empty. He looks around, re-

the unty

F A R :M ]•: 11 ' S M A G A Z I N E

members his boyhood days on the farm, sees things not as rosy as he thinks he remembers them, and comes to the con- clusion that something must be done for the dear old farm, or something will hap- pen as the late Premier of Ontario would say. His first advice is we must break up the fallow and grow more. ' Strange isn't it, how the urban mind thinks back- wards from the stomach ! No wonder that the full dinner pail and the pork barrel are common political terms!

The real problem is one of arithmetic practical addition. In fact it might extend to higher mathematics and deal in com- binations. For the modern word for this old rule of thumb is co-operation.

CO-OPERATION THE REMEDY

Let us look into the farm districts. Take any township you like, they all show the same symptoms. The following points

stand plainly on the surface

The isolated fanner has hard work to make a living, even from his good crops. The market is too far removed. One farmer is afraid to join with his neighbor in the market of his crops for fear the other fellolo will make a cent more than he is m,aking. The big farmer buys in large quantities, employs experts to sell and has wide' credit.

The small farmer buys and sells in small quantities, has narrow credit, and gives his time mostly to the grow- ing of crops. (His adviser says, go on, produce more, don't stop to look up!)

The farrners who grow staple crops for -ivhich there is an organized mar- ket, still get fair returns. As for ex- ample, for wheat, beef and wool.

The big farmer is the only one who can enter into the production of spe- cialties where the problem' of mar- keting is bigger than the problem of production.

The average Canadian farmer is a pro- ducer of wheat, cattle, horses, sheep, pigs, hay, fruit, and vegetables all staple productions.

The prices he gets are set by organized selling bodies who must make interest on investment and good wages for manage- ment besides.

There is the whole question of the first part. The farmer suffers if he does not know how to market. And it is certain all farmers cannot carry on this exchange or bartering individually. Who then will do it for him ? It will be either the middleman with his policy of take all you can, or it will be by a combination among the farm- ers themselves, whereby the selling end is handled by those among them who know how to sell. This is wltni is done by agri- cultural co-operation. It must seem to all that the forming of agricultural co- aperative corporations throughout Can- ada is the only way to settle the question aright.

Farmers who see things correctly must get together.

Nonsense, says the can't-tell-me-nothin' farmer, farmers can't stick together!

These are" the deceptive methods used by a devil that has been stalking through the country districts for a long while.

Farmers can, and must organize. The future, not only of the agriculture of Can- ada, but the saving of society in general, both urban and rural, depends upon it. The time is now critical. The war has introduced new economic factors and the settlement will reveal some hideous in- equalities. The new order of things will make agricultural competition keener. The stress and strain of the recuperation will centre around the farm, and through the hills and hollows, over the rise and fall of prices, will ride an agriculture to its position. It depends on how we go at the question now.

AMERICA WILL BE HIT HARD

As Sir Horace Plunkett said in his Chicago address, "The great international competition will strike the North Ameri- can farmer the keenest since he is farthest behind in the matter of organization for his own interests."

The French-speaking farmers of the province of Quebec are moving along this line. Already the farmers of the counties of Mogantic and Yamaska are proving that they understand the spirit of co-op- eration. They organize under the pro- vincial law for this purpose. These locals have taken stock in the central society of cheese dealers in Quebec city and in the Co-operative Settlement in Montreal. A farmer writing in a recent issue of Le Bulletin dc la Ferme, says : "The farmer will no longer be compelled to buy at the ridiculous figures of the local dealer who has a\so been obliged to purchase from a wholesaler who in his turn has passed it on to this little dealer in the centres of the consuming public, and where the con- sumer is forced to buy at a price which the farmer would have been very happy to even approach for his products."

Now is the time for business co-opera- tion, just as the city people have united to make their business go, so the farmers must form co-operative corporations among the rural communities of Canada.

And other beginnings have been made! Thanks to the magnificent example of the Grain Growers the spirit of self-reliance, the dignity of business management has gripped many a mind on the fertile but often inhospitable prairie. The Co-opera- tive Elevators of Alberta have eighty ele- vators and are making things go. The Saskatchewan Co-operative Elevator Com- pany, with its 200 elevators, has had a most successful year. Greatest of all, the Grain Growers' Grain Co. went into the grain exchange to correct the evils of the

Ucaveis are great co-operators. They buiit Itiis (lam in Now Ontario in a few hours.

farmers' lack of selling ability, and they have come out this last year with a profit of some 1226,000 after handling some twenty-six million bushels of wheat and having saved to the farmers of Western Canada, a large gain over what they would have had, if this company had not been in the field with their fair-play busi- ness methods.

THE SPIRIT OF SERVICE

But the Western farmers, alive with the true co-operative spirit, are not alone in the possession of the stern stuff that makes men. Old Ontario that has pioneered the Dominion and been the mother of prov- inces has some examples of unselfish co- operation to her credit. The co-operative apple-growers are good examples. The $200,000 business of the two-year-old or- ganization that grew on the roots of the Grange the United Farmers of Ontario speaks volumes of the possibilities in th^ East.

The future is big with opportunity. T>.e need for unselfish men is insistent. The questions are looming up fast and the call to action at once is loud. It is a call to service.

The annual meetings of the majority of the farmei's' organizations take place this month. All farmers should be taking their part in them. For co-operation must settle the following points:

(n) Marketing problems.

(h) Credit associations.

(c) Guaranteed goods.

(d) Better farming and better homes. Co-operation has the broad principle

of the rights of all people for its justifica- tion. It works out by the principles of:

(a) One man, one vote.

(6) Limited dividends on stock.

(c) Bonus returns on a patronage basis.

The results will be of immense import- ance to all farmers and to the community as a whole. These results will be seen by:

(a) The increased money returns to the farm.

(b) The elevation of the farmer's business.

(c) His voice in political parties.

(d) A higher type of citizenship.

(e) And sounder national business.

The Way

THE editor had suggested that this article should be entitled, "How Farmers Can Organize," but the thought has occurred to me, "Why Do Not All the Farmers Organize?"

I might have written under the first title the old adage that "Where there is a will, there is a way," and then perhaps gone on to show that scores of organiza- tions had already shown the way, but I want to try and suggest a few thoughts, the possibilities of which possess for me a fascination that has held me to the work of organization among farmers in spite of temptations more remunerative from a financial point of view.

Most of us who are farmers, and many who are not, have ready the story of the Danish farmer and what organization has done for him. Some of us have read the history of agricultural development in

FARMER'S MAGAZINE

New Zealand and the great States of Australia. A few of us have read of the marvelous work achieved by the organiza- tion of the agricultural classes in Russia, Siberia and many other coun- tries, the people of whom "we are rather too apt to look upon as our inferiors in intelligence. I was told quite recently by a promi- nent New 2ealander, that in his country riches, as ■we know them, running into millions of dollars, are unknown, but that nevertheless the farmers, generally speaking, are prosperous and happy. Their average wealth per head is away above ours, because though they have none excessively rich, they also have none ex- cessively poor. The same can be said of Denmark to-day, yet it is not so many decades ago in either Denmark or New Zealand that these con- ditions did not exist. They had their million- aires and they also had their paupers. The change has been brought about by agricultural organization.

CANADIAN FARMERS GET SMALL END

Not so very many years ago the Danish farmer, like ourselves, was receiving on an average only from 40c to 50c on every dollar's worth of goods which he produced. On the other hand he was pay- ing for everything he needed in his busi- ness of farming, from $1.50 to $2 in ex- change for one dollar's worth of value. To-day, we have it, on excellent authority, that the Danish farmer receives at least 96c for every dollar's worth of produce which he has to sell, and he has organized his purchasing power to such a fine de- gree that if there is any margin of profit between himself and the manufacturer it goes into the treasury of his own or- ganization. Result there may be a few still looking for the other four cents, but otherwise everyone is happy; the farmer is a man to be envied. There is no de- population of the -rural district. Agricul- ture and the agriculturists dominate the policy of the whole country. The change from a poor, impoverished rural population to one with the greatest wealth per capita in the world has been wrought by organization. The change from a coun- try ruled by politicians in the interests of a few millionaires and large landowners to a country ruled by statesmen in the in- terests of the majority of the people is due to the same cause. In detail, the main cause for these changes was a complete revolution in agricultural methods through education and the substitution of the co-operative system in the manu- facture and selling of farm produce and in the purchasing of farm necessities. The movement towards these things originated in the ranks of the farmers themselves through organization. With such possi-

Bonnie Bucklyvie, sold at aiKticin in Scotland recently at the late Mr. Brydon's dispersion for 5,000 Guineas. He is a son of that noted Clydesdale sire, Baron of Bucklyvie, sold for ■"f4S.500. Livestock forms the subject for co-operative work all over Canada. The Doiniuion Government is getting interested.

bilities before us why is it that a larger percentage of the farmers in this country are not to be found in the ranks of one or the other of the farmers' organizations already in the field?

How are these things to be brought about? One of the first things to be done is to secure a portion of that margin which exists between what the producer receives and the consumer pays, and which at the present time goes to non- producers, or middlemen as we call them, who, in the interests of the country gen- erally, might better be engaged in work of a productive nature. Another move- ment equally important is to throiv the combined weight of the best brains in the community totuard increasing the quan- tity and iinproving the quality of the pro- duce raised in that comyminity . The latter is particularly important, the quality must be not only improved but standardized as far as possible. .

Having got thus far, we can perhaps, with the permission of the editor, use a little space for an outline as to how farm- ers can organize. I express the opinion for what it may be worth, but think that, failing something proved to be better, it might well serve in the same way as the 1 ough sketch serves the architect who is to complete the finished model.

It is rather unfortunate for my purpose in this article that I am associated with the work of our Western organizations. I must, however, ask our readers to be- lieve me when I state that outside of this connection and from a purely theoretical point of view, I consider the basic prin- ciple of our Western organizations, of which the United Farmers of Alberta is an example, as ideal for the carrying out of the ideas outlined above. In our asso- ciation we have some hundreds of volun- tary local units. Any community where ten or more farmers care to get together.

pay in a nominal mem- ber fee and subscribe to our constitution, auto- matically becomes a local unit.

These local units are all affiliated vnth the Cen- tral Office, consisting of a board of directors elected by delegates from the dif- ferent units all over the province, who employ a permanent secretary, de- voting the whole of his time to Central office work. The reason for the Central Office is that while there are many, things which the local standing by itself can carry out with a certain degree of sucess, there are many other things which can only be accom- plished by organization on a much larger scale. The Central Office or- ganized as an agency, is a very useful factor in the purchasing qi sup- plies and is absolutely esential in the selling of farm produce where the , ultimate market is any

considerable distance away from the place of production.

In addition, the Central Office, composed as it should be of the best brains and most progressive men in the province, and with a staff devoting the whole of their time to the work, is in a position to render very valuable assistance to the local units by making suggestions from time to time for the improvement and enlargement of the work in Which the local units are engaged. The question of competent organizers and lecturers whose duty it would be to visit the local unions and render them practical assistance from time to time is also one which necessitates the establishment of some central control

A GOOD MOTTO

A farmers' organization should be for defensive purposes. Its motto should be that of the old British volunteer, "Defence not defiance." An organization bound together centrally is best suited for this work. It is more powerful whether as friend or enemy, whether it has to meet private corporation or legislative as- sembly. Here then is the basic principle to my mind for the establishment of a great farmers' organization.

Carrying the illustration a little fur- ther, we find all over Canada numerous local farmers' societies already securing in many cases a considerable proportion of that difference between producer and consumer which has been so marked in the past. We find them adding to their mar- gin of profit in one or more of the fol- lowing ways. As a purchasing agency for their livestock, as an egg and poultry cir- cle, as a beef ring, and as mutual insur- ance societies. Many are feeling their way cautiously in a small way as agricultural credit societies. Societies are also strik- ing out in the direction of better farming Continued on Page 65.

FARMER'S MAGAZINE

'RING OUT THE GRIEF THAT SAPS THE MIND FOR THOSE WHOM HERE WE SEE NO MORE, RING OUT THE FEUDS OF RICH AND POOR. RING IN REDRESS OF ALL MANKIND."

^ draper for tfte J^elu |9ear

By ETHEL M. CHAPMAN

WE have pas sed another milestone. The clocks have struck, the sand glass has fallen, and the diary with all its mistake* has closed. May we have a clearer view- point to carry into the New Year.

We cling so pitifttlli/ to our own wishes. We think so much of what the year will bring us, and the whole world) groaning with its agony of tired bodies and discour- aged souls. Grant us the blessing of self -for getful- ness, the broadness of vision to ask, not "What can ice get out of the year?" but "How much can we put into it?"

Give us a faith in humanity that trusts, rather than a shrewdness^ to discover flaws. In spite of the experiences, the failures, the hard lessons of the past years we are still very young, young in the harsh- ness of our judgments, the cruelty of our criticisms. We have condemned our neighbors and have had secret feelings of superiority , just because our weak- nesses don't happen to run in the same direction. We have ridiculed failures icithout considering the vali- ance of the fight before the fall. We have criticised the church and established institutions, forgetting that even with shortcomings they are still the best the old, world has. Let us have still greater independence of thought with the courage of conviction, but help us to think long, sei'ious thoughts before we tell them. As we stand at the dividing of the ways, may the truth come to us individually that ive are a function, not an end of creation, that our lives can only be of use as they make the world a better place to live, and that xve can serve the world best through our own community. May we realize the shame of having any hungry or cold or sick in our neighborhood while there is food in our cellars or fuel in our woods or means to have them cared for. May we see that the cause of poverty usually dates back either to the man's or woman's lack of training to make a living or f" a physical handicap, so that we may take some thought for physical protection of the children, and for the additional education that will make the boys good farmers or tradesmen and the girls intelligent homemakers. May we know the dangers of loneliness for the homeless or socially ostracised, and blush at our Pharisaism that we should presume to make dis- tinctions. Then we will open our homes to them and cultivate the rare grace of Christian hospitality.

And while we think of others, Oh, save us from the danger of falling short in our own homes. We know that the first requisite for the nurture of happiness and goodness is the magnetism of hnm.an love, but

we have come to find its ex- pression in 0 ur own families rather em,bar- rassing. We know that no outside influ- ence can take the place of the family al- tar, but we have seen the family altar fail so often on account of its creeds and its Puritanical stiltedness that we don't Help us by our lives as well aS.

cdtecliism

know just what to do

oar prayers to fill our homes tviih an atmosphere of

warm cheerful confidence that will teach our children

to distinguish between fredom and looseness, that will

make the thing we call religion a practical part of

living.

We are facing another year of what we have some- times called commonplace and monotonous tasks. Teach us their meaning. Help us to see that the man who com,bines with Nature to make a pippin from a thorn-apple, or to raise bread from a seed and the rarth, is working very close to the Creator. Teach us to search for the things that make life worth most in the country, to get the spell of the silence of snowy fields, the calmness of the open quiet spaces, the mir- acle of growth, the mystery of the call of the vireo to his mate. Then we will find our joys in the real things of tJie country, and our young men and women will not want the imitations of the toivn.

And with all this save us from the bovine content- ment that looks no farther than our own green pas- tures and filled barns. Teach us our responsibilities in the broader questions involving not only our neighbors but the whole world.

Keep before us the picture of the Belgian mother holding her baby to her breast and staring in haggard terror through the battle-smoke, fearing starvation. for it. She is asking for only the necessaries, and as the world goes, Canada is comparatively abounding in luxury this year. Do not spare us the understand- ing of the suffering of the battle-field, that no wound- ed soldier be left uncared for through our indiffer- ence. Give tis the generosity to save the soldier's ujidow from the stigma of charity in return for the biggest sacrifice the country could have asked of her, and the grace to appreciate our lifelong debt to the man who combes back "permanently disabled." Let it not be an how's gratitude of a purse and a bonfire, but a solid public feeling working in a practical way to give him the independence he has earned so dearly. And until the whole tuorld can rest to heal its wounds uje ask no other blessing than a quick conscience and the courage to listen.

Austrian Peoples in the West: By c. b. sissons

The Difficulties Foreign Farmers Find in Getting on to the Land Some Have

Done Well

This house illustrates a primitive type of lathing.

FEW Easterners realize the far-reach- ing effects of our immigration policy inaugurated in the nineties. East of the Great Lakes one expects to see now and then employed in various branches of unskilled labor, men of stocky build and alien speech. It is difficult to realize that in the three Prairie provinces possibly one man in four has a native tongue other than English. The most prolific source for non-

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A feuoe which indicates industry and ability to use materials ready to hand.

English speaking immigrants proved to be the Austrian 'provinces of Galicia and Bukovina. Thence, year after year, a people always oppressed and often poverty-stricken sought in eager crowds the grant of one hundred and sixty acres of land offered freely to all and sundry. Steamship companies naturally welcomed such profitable ballast; contracting firms

^mii^ikSi^ .

were not averse to plentiful labor ; broad acres were craving tillage; "room for all and to spare," was our motto. A few there were who sounded a warning note fearing that our democratizing institu- tions might prove unequal to such an enormous feat of digestion, but the tide had started and there was no power to check it.

Last winter some ten thousand unem- ployed men, the great majority of foreign birth, and a very large proportion from these provinces of Austria, stormed the city hall in Winnipeg, demanding work or bread. Mr. J. H. T. Falk, secretary of the Associated Charities of that city, took the trouble to investigate the cases of 255 ol these "foreigners," who applied to his office in a week. He found that in 179

An Austrian bake oven.

In Times Like These

Tjie foreign people who come to Canada, come with burning enthu- siasrn for the new land, this land of liberty land of freedom. Some have been seen kissing the ground in an ecstasy of gladness when they arrive. It is the land of their dreams where they hope to find home and happiness. They come to us with ideals of citizenship that shame our narrow, ^mercenary standards. These men are of a race which has gladly shed its blood for freedom, and is doing it to-day. But what happens? They go out to work on construction gangs for the summer, and when the work closes down they drift back into the cities. They have done the work we wanted them to do, and no ftirther thought is given to them. They may get off the earth so far as we are concerned. One door stands invitingly open to them. There is one place where they are welcome so long as their money lasts, and around the bar they get their ideals of citizenship.

When an election is